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Tamil Brahmi 1st  Cen BC Sittannavasal,
Pudukkottai District
'எருமி நாடு குமுழ் ஊர் பிறந்த கவுடிஇ தென்கு சிறுபொசில் இளயர் செய்த அதிடானம்
Eruminatu kumul-ur piranta kavuti-i tenku-cirupocil ilayar ceyta atit-anam
Tamil-Brahmi Inscription on the Rock Bed, 1st  century BCE Sittannavasal, Pudukkottai District
Samanarmalai ( Keelakuyilkudi) 2nd Cen B.C. near Madurai

Samanarmalai ( Keelakuyilkudi) 2nd Cen B.C. near Madurai
2nd Cen A.D Tamil-Brahmi, Anaimalai, near Madurai
'இவ குன்றத்தூர் நாதன் தான எரி அரிதன் 
அத்துவாயிஅரட்ட காயிபன்'
Line 1 - Iva kunratu uraiyul patantan eri aritan  – Line 2 - Attuvayi aratta kayipan 

Tamil-Brahmi Rock Bed Inscription,
2nd  Century CE.
Arunattarmalai, Pugalur Near Karur
Line 1 Korrantai (I*) lava (n)
Line 2 munru


Dravida Brahmi Karadukka, in Kasaragod district.Kerala
kazhokora pattan makan charuma 
 There are 14 letters, and the use of pulli (dot), peculiar to Southern Brahmi for denoting half-sound, is conspicuous by its presence in the record.Inscription are comparable to those of the Ammankoyilpatti and Arachallur of Tamil Nadu dated 3rd Century A.D.

Thondur (3rd cen A.D.) near Villupuram
ஸேந்காயியன் ஏவ அகழ் ஊரறம்  மோசி செயித அதிடானம் =  - sEnkAyiyan Eva akazh OraRam mOsi seyitha athitAnam 
Mosi has done 3 samanar beds as per Senkayan's instruction
 Big cavern with Jaina beds are about 2000 years old on a hillock called Pancha Pandavar Kal, near Vadagal village in Gingee taluk. Rock art of a painting of a deer and lizard

Neganurpatti  4th C A. D. near Gingee
 பெரும் பொகழ் சேக்கந்தி தாயியரு சேக்கந்தன்னி செ யி வித்த பள்ளி
" Perum pogazh sekkanthi thayiyuru sekkanthanni se vitha palli" (sekkanthanni, mother of sekkanthi of Perumpugozh village has built this abode) .


‘vazhumi'
Edakal cave on the Ambukuthi hill in Kerala's Wayanad district. Going by the palaeographic evidence the inscription assigned to the fourth century A.D.

Tirunatharkundru near Gingee (4th. C A.D) First use of Ai
Tamil text in Sangam Tamil ( vatteluttu )    
Rock inscription at Thirunathar - probably 4th. Century AD
PC: Shri. N.Krishnaswami
 
 
Sittannavasal near Pudukkottai (4th C A.D)
 Tamil text in Asokan Tamil Brahmi - rock inscription at Sittanavasal
probably 4th. Century AD
PC: Shri. N.Krishnaswami 
Varaguna Pandyan Inscription. Tamil alphabet in 8th. Century AD
 Tamil in the modern form is here becoming more recognizable.
PC: Shri. N.Krishnaswami 
 
Rajendra Chola I - 11th C A.D
Rajendra Chola I - 11th C A.D
 Tamil alphabet in 11th. Century AD -  Inscription of Rajendra Chola I
Tamil in the modern form becoming even more recognizable.
PC: Shri. N.Krishnaswami 


Year =

Day = ௳
One Hundred = ௱
One Thousand =
Gregorian calendar Year = 2015 = ௨௲௰௫ - 2*1000+10+5=2015 i.e ௨(2)*௲(1000)+௰(10)+௫(5) = ௨௲௰௫
Gregorian calendar Year = 985 =  ௯௱௮௰௫ - 9*100+8*10+10+5 i.e., ௯(9)*௱(100)+௮(8)*௰(10)+௫(5) = ௯௱௮௰௫ ௵
Gregorian calendar Year = 1014 =  ௧௲௰௪ - 1*1000+10+4=1014 i.e ௧(1)*௲(1000)+௰(10)+௪(4) = ௧௲௰௪ ௵
 Month = ௴
 ௧ (January), (February), ௩ (March), ௪ (April), ௫ (May), ௬ (June), ௭ (July), ௮ (August), ௯ (September), ௰ (October), ௰௧ (November), ௰௨ (December)
Day = ௳
 ௧ (1), (2), ௩ (3), ௪ (4), ௫ (5), ௬ (6), ௭ (7), ௮ (8), ௯ (9), ௰ (10),
 ௰௧ (11), ௰௨ (12), ௰௩ (13), ௰௪ (14), ௰௫ (15), ௰௬ (16), ௰௭ (17), ௰௮ (18), ௰௯ (19), ௨௰ (20),
 ௨௰௧ (21), ௨௰௨ (22), ௨௰௩ (23), ௨௰௪ (24), ௨௰௫ (25), ௨௰௬ (26), ௨௰௭ (27), ௨௰௮ (28), ௨௰௯ (29), ௩௰ (30), ௩௰௧ (31)
Todays Date = ௩௰௧ ௰௨ ௨௲௰௫  31 (Day) - 12 (December) (Month) - 2015 (Year)

Tamil calendar system

The Sanskrit months above would start one month ahead of Tamil months since the Tamil calendar is a solar calendar while the Sanskrit calendar is a lunisolar calendar.

Counting from the start of the Kali Yuga, with its epoch on February 18, 3102 BC Julian (January 23, 3102 BC Gregorian), based on Aryabhata (6th century)

Year Kaliyuga - Current year = 5117 (14 April 2015 A.D to 13 April 2016 A.D.) கலியுகம் ௫௲௱௰௭௵ - ௫௲௱௰௭ - 5*1000+100+10+7=5117
Kali Yuga started in 3102 BC. So add 3102 with 2015 A.D.  = 5117. Kaliyuga for 1014A.D. (3102 + 1014) = 4016 ௪௲௱௰௬ ; Kaliyuga for 985 A.D. (3102 + 985) = 4087 ௪௲௱௮௰௭


 Month = ௴
 ௧ (சித்திரை) mid-April to mid-May, (வைகாசி) mid-May to mid-June, ௩ (ஆனி) mid-June to mid-July, ௪ (ஆடி) mid-July to mid-August, ௫ (ஆவணி) mid-August to mid-September, ௬ (புரட்டாசி) mid-September to mid-October, ௭ (ஐப்பசி) mid-October to mid-November, ௮ (கார்த்திகை) mid-November to mid-December, ௯ (மார்கழி) mid-December to mid-January, ௰ (தை) mid-January to mid-February, ௰௧ (மாசி) mid-February to mid-March, ௰௨ (பங்குனி) mid-March to mid-April.

Date: Example:  ௧௳  ௧௴ (சித்திரை) மன்மத ௵ / கலியுகம் ௫௲௱௰௭௵ Day 01 Month 01 (Chithirai) 29th Tamil Cyclic year Manmadha (2015 - 2016) / Kaliyugam Year 5117


Thiruvalluvar Aandu (Calendar): 

Thiruvalluvar was born thirty one (31) years before Lord Jesus Christ. Hence it was decided to add 31 years to the English year and adopt that as the Tamil year called Thiruvalluvar Aandu.

Example: 2015 + 31 years = 2046

Hindu Calendar



Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 2071–2072
 - Shaka Samvat 1937–1938
 - Kali Yuga 5116–5117


The Saka era (also known as the Shalivahana Saka era; ) is a historical calendar era, corresponding to Julian year 78. The Saka era is ostensibly the date of accession of the Kushan emperor Kanishka. With a number of religious calendars in use in India, the Indian government in 1957 adopted a National Calendar of India for civil purposes and a standardised computation of the religious calendar based on astronomical observations. The civil calendar is based on the Shalivahana lunisolar calendar with a New Year's day festival called Ugadi in the Deccan region of India and Gudi Padwa in Maharashtra state. 
Years in the Indian calendar are counted from the start of the Saka Era, the equinox of March 22nd of year 79 in the Gregorian calendar, designated day 1 of month Caitra of year 1 in the Saka Era. Days begin at sunrise. The calendar was officially adopted on 1 Caitra, 1879 Saka Era, or March 22nd, 1957 Gregorian. Since year 1 of the Indian calendar differs from year 1 of the Gregorian, to determine whether a year in the Indian calendar is a leap year, add 78 to the year of the Saka era then apply the Gregorian calendar rule to the sum. 

Example: 2015 - 78 = 1937
Example: Salivahana year 1347 + 78 = 1425 Corresponding Julian Calendar year

Vikram Samvat (Calendar):
The origin of Hindu New Year relates to the legendary Hindu King Vikramaditya in 57 BC. Samvat calendar is 56.7 years ahead (in count) of the solar Gregorian calendar. Hence it was decided to add 57 years to the English year and adopt that as the Vikram Samyat (Calendar).  It is a lunar calendar based on ancient Hindu tradition (Hindu calendar and Vedic time keeping)

Example: 2015+56 years = 2071


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